Turpentine can be divided into gum turpentine, wood turpentine and sulphate turpentine in the light of sources of raw materials. Gum turpentine is extracted from pine resin by distillation.
Turpentine is colorless to pale yellow oily liquid containing various terpenes. The presence of double bonds and rings in the terpenes enables multiple reactions.
It is composed of terpenes, mainly the monoterpenes alpha-pinene and beta-pinene with lesser amounts of carene, camphene, dipentene, and terpinolene. It is sometimes colloquially known as turps.
It can be used in solvent and as a source of materials for organic synthesis, or as a source of raw materials in the synthesis of fragrant chemical compounds. It also can be used in medicinal elixir and cleaning products.